Another type of butt-jointed connector is the biconical connector. Biconical connectors use two conical plugs, a double conical alignment sleeve, and axial springs to perform fiber alignment.
The picture below is an illustration of this basic biconical connector design. Formation of the plugs and alignment sleeve involves transfer molding. Transfer molding uses silica-filled epoxy resin to mold the conical plug directly to the fiber or around a cast (precision wire). After connecting the conical plugs to the optical fibers, the fiber-end faces are polished before the plugs are inserted into the molded alignment sleeve.
During fiber insertion, the inside surface of the double conical sleeve performs fiber alignment, while the axial springs push the fiber ends into close contact. If the alignment sleeve permits the fibers to actually become in contact, then the axial spring provides enough force to maintain fiber contact but prevent damage to the fiber-end faces. Normally, biconical connectors lock the fibers in alignment using a threaded outer shell.
Biconical connector design.
Multifiber connectors join and align multifiber cables to reduce the time it takes to connect multiple fibers. One type of multifiber connector is the array connector. The array connector is used to connect individual ribbons of ribbon-type cables. The array connector is similar to the ribbon splice. In the array connector, the fibers of each ribbon are epoxied into grooves of a silicon chip so that the fiber ends protrude from the end of the chip. The chip and the protruding fibers are polished flat for connection.
Each half of the connector is prepared separately before being butt-jointed. A spring clip and two grooved metal-backed plates are used to align and connect the stacked ribbons of the two ribbon cables. Array connectors may also use an alignment sleeve with V-grooved silicon chips and metal springs to align and connect stacked ribbons. The picture below shows the spring clip method of array connector alignment. The multifiber array connector is only one example of a multiple connector. Many types of multiple connectors exist that connect different types of multifiber cables.
Spring clip method of ribbon connection.
The last picture shows how an expanded-beam connector uses two lenses to expand and then refocus the light from the transmitting fiber into the receiving fiber. Expanded-beam connectors are normally plugadapter-plug type connections. Fiber separation and lateral misalignment are less critical in expanded beam coupling than in butt-jointing. The same amount of fiber separation and lateral misalignment in expanded beam coupling produces a lower coupling loss than in butt-jointing.
However, angular misalignment is more critical. The same amount of angular misalignment in expanded-beam coupling produces a higher loss than in butt-jointing. Expanded-beam connectors are also much harder to produce. Present applications for expanded-beam connectors include multifiber connections, edge connections for printed circuit boards, and other applications.
Expanded-beam connector operation.
Light-duty connectors and heavy-duty connectors are two ways that the military classifies fiber optic connectors. Light-duty connector shipboard applications include locations that protect the connectors from the environment, such as in a junction box or equipment enclosure.
Heavy-duty applications require a very rugged, stand-alone, sealed connector. A heavy-duty connector must also withstand pulls and tugs on the fiber cable without disrupting system operation. Light-duty connectors can be of the ferrule, biconical, or expanded-beam designs.
Ferrule-type ST® connectors are becoming the commercial connector of choice for local area network (LAN) and data transfer links and are the standard connector for military light duty applications. The picture below shows the ST type of light-duty connector.
ST light-duty connector.
The picture below shows one type of heavy-duty connector designed for use in harsh military environments. This connector is described by the military specification MIL-C-28876. This connector comes in various sizes capable of terminating 2, 4, 6, or 8 fibers. Each fiber termination, called a terminus, is of the cylindrical ferrule type.
Two slightly different termini are used to form a connection; a pin terminus and a socket terminus. The pin terminus consists of a terminus body, which holds the terminus within the connector shell and a ceramic ferrule. The socket terminus consists of a terminus body, a ceramic ferrule, and an alignment sleeve, which attaches to the ceramic ferrule. Fiber alignment occurs when the pin terminus slides into the alignment sleeve of the socket terminus. The termini are held within an insert in the connector shell.
When the connector halves are mated, the connector inserts align the mating termini, which then align the mating fibers. The connector shell and backshell protect the termini from the surrounding environment and provide strain relief for the multifiber cable.
MIL-C-28876 heavy-duty connector.