Another frequency-determining device is the CRYSTAL. The crystal may be used with a tank circuit, or it may perform alone.
exhibit a characteristic known as the PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT. The
piezoelectric effect is the property of a crystal by which mechanical
forces produce electrical charges and, conversely, electrical charges
produce mechanical forces. This effect is a form of oscillation similar
to the flywheel effect of a tank circuit.
The piezoelectric effect can be seen in a number of crystal substances. The most important of these are the minerals quartz and Rochelle salt. Although quartz does not exhibit the piezoelectric effect to the degree that Rochelle salt does, quartz is used for frequency control in oscillators because of its greater mechanical strength. Another mineral, tourmaline, is physically strong like quartz; but because it is more expensive, it is not used extensively as an fdd. This discussion will deal only with the quartz crystal.
The crystals used in oscillator circuits are thin sheets, or wafers, cut from natural or synthetic quartz and ground to a specific thickness to obtain the desired resonant frequency. The crystals are mounted in holders, which support them physically and provide electrodes by which voltage is applied. The holder must allow the crystals freedom for vibration. There are many different types of holders. One type is shown in the figure below.
The frequency for which a crystal is ground is referred to as the NATURAL RESONANT FREQUENCY of the crystal. Voltage applied to the crystal produces mechanical vibrations which, in turn, produce an output voltage at the natural resonant frequency of the crystal. A vibrating crystal can be represented by an equivalent electrical circuit composed of capacitance, inductance, and resistance.
The figure below, view (A), illustrates the symbol of a crystal; view (B) shows an equivalent circuit for the crystal. View (C) shows an equivalent circuit for the crystal and the holder; C1 represents the capacitance between the metal plates of the holder
Crystal symbol and equivalent circuits SYMBOL.
Crystal symbol and equivalent circuits EQUIVALENT-CIRCUIT.
Crystal symbol and equivalent circuits. HOLDER ADDED.
The Q (discussed in the tutorials on "Tuned
Circuits") of a crystal is many times greater than that of an LC tank
circuit. The high Q is present because the resistance in the crystal is
extremely small. Commercially produced crystals range in Q from 5,000 to
30,000. The high Q causes the frequency stability to be much greater
than that of an ordinary LC tank circuit. This is the reason a crystal
is used in many sine-wave generator circuits.
SOLID-STATE LC OSCILLATORS
As you have just studied, a basic oscillator can be broken down into three main sections: a frequency-determining device, an amplifier, and a feedback circuit. The frequency-determining device in an LC oscillator is usually an LC tank circuit. Although the tank circuit is normally found in the input circuit of an oscillator (both electron tube and transistor), it sometimes appears in the output circuit. The differences in magnitude of plate and collector currents and shunting impedances are considerations in the designed locations of such tank circuits.
both solid-state and electron tube circuits, oscillations take place in
the tuned circuit. Both the electron tube and the transistor function
primarily as electrical valves that amplify and automatically deliver to
the input circuit the proper amount of energy to sustain oscillations.
In both tube and transistor oscillators, the feedback circuit couples
energy of the proper amount and of the correct phase from the output to
the input circuit to sustain oscillations.
TYPES OF FEEDBACK
The previous tutorials on "Tuned Circuits". described the resonant or tank circuit and how a sinusoidal signal is generated by the action of an inductor and a capacitor. The feedback signal is coupled from this circuit by either of two means. The first method is to take some of the energy from the inductor.
This can be done by any one of the three ways shown in the figure below, views (A), (B), and (C). When an oscillator uses a TICKLER COIL, as shown in view (A), it is referred to as an ARMSTRONG OSCILLATOR. When an oscillator uses a tapped coil (view (B)) or a split coil (view (C)), it is referred to as a HARTLEY OSCILLATOR.
The second method of coupling the feedback signal is to use two capacitors in the tank circuit and tap the feedback signal between them. This is shown in view (D). An oscillator using this method is referred to as a COLPITTS OSCILLATOR. Each of these particular oscillators is named after the person who originally designed them.