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## Commutator-poles

The effects of additional coils in a commutator may be illustrated by the addition of a second coil to the armature.

The commutator must now be divided into four parts since there are four coil ends. The coil is rotated in a clockwise direction from the position shown.

The voltage induced in the white coil, DECREASES FOR THE NEXT 90 degrees of rotation (from maximum to zero). The voltage induced in the black coil INCREASES from zero to maximum at the same time. Since there are four segments in the commutator, a new segment passes each brush every 90 degrees instead of every 180 degrees.

This allows the brush to switch from the white coil to the black coil at the instant the voltages in the two coils are equal. The brush remains in contact with the black coil as its induced voltage increases to maximum, level B in the graph.

It then decreases to level A, 90 degrees later. At this point, the brush will contact the white coil again. The graph in the illustration shows the ripple effect of the voltage when two armature coils are used.

Since there are now four commutator segments in the commutator and only two brushes, the voltage cannot fall any lower than at point A. Therefore, the ripple is limited to the rise and fall between points A and B on the graph.

By adding more armature coils, the ripple effect can be further reduced. Decreasing ripple in this way increases the effective voltage of the output.

Effects of additional coils in a commutator as it refers to a generator.

Effective voltage is the equivalent level of dc voltage, which will cause the same average current through a given resistance. By using additional armature coils, the voltage across the brushes is not allowed to fall to as low a level between peaks.

Compare the graphs in the illustration shown above and in the illustration (Effects of commutation) that was presented in the (Elementary DC Generator tutorial).

Notice that the ripple has been reduced. Practical generators use many armature coils. They also use more than one pair of magnetic poles.

The additional magnetic poles have the same effect on ripple as did the additional armature coils. In addition, the increased number of poles provides a stronger magnetic field (greater number of flux lines).

This, in turn, allows an increase in output voltage because the coils cut more lines of flux per revolution.

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